Understand how the quality of soil declines and what causes this decline.
Examples of soil degradation
Soil degradation is the physical, chemical and biological decline in soil quality. It can be the loss of organic matter, decline in soil fertility, and structural condition, erosion, adverse changes in salinity, acidity or alkalinity, and the effects of toxic chemicals, pollutants or excessive flooding.
- water erosion (includes sheet, rill and gully erosion)
- wind erosion
- salinity (includes dryland, irrigation and urban salinity)
- loss of organic matter
- fertility decline
- soil acidity or alkalinity
- structure decline (includes soil compaction and surface sealing)
- mass movement
- soil contamination (including effects of toxic chemicals and pollutants).